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      • GB/T 15046-2011脂肪酰二乙醇胺Fatty diethanol amide

        本標準規定了脂肪酰二乙醇胺的產品分類、要求、試驗方法、檢驗規則和標志、包裝、運輸、貯存和保質期。<br>本標準適用于由脂肪酸甲酯或脂肪酸以及油脂與二乙醇胺合成的脂肪酰二乙醇胺產品。...

        2022-06-10 07:53:18瀏覽:2 ethanol乙醇胺二乙醇胺

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      • Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Sensitizes Primary Mouse Hepatocytes to Ethanol- and TNF-α-Induced Apopt

        It is well-documented that alcohol drinking together with hepatitis viral infection accelerates liver injury; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this paper, we demonstrated that primary hepatocytes from transgenic mice overexpressing hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) were more susceptible to ethanol- and TNF-α-induced apoptotic killing. Compared to normal control mouse hepatocytes, ethanol and/or TNF-α treatment led to a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome C release,caspase-3 activity, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation in hepatocytes from HBX transgenic mice.Blocking caspase-3 activity antagonized ethanol- and TNF-α-induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes from HBX transgenic mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that HBX sensitizes primary mouse hepatocytes to ethanoland TNF-α-induced apoptosis by a caspase-3-dependent mechanism, which may partly explain the synergistic effects of alcohol consumption and hepatitis B virus infection on liver injury....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:24 HBVXProteinethanolApoptosisTNF-αcaspase-3

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      • Ethanol steam reforming over Ni-Cu/Al2O3-MyOz (M=Si,La,Mg,and Zn) catalysts

        Ni-based catalysts doped with copper additives were studied on their role in ethanol steam reforming reaction.The effects of Ca content,support species involving Al2O3-SiO2,Al2O3-MgO,Al2O3-ZnO,and Al2O3-La2O3,on the catalytic performance were studied.Characterizations by TPR,XRD,NH3-TPD,XPS,and TGA indicated that catalysts 30Ni5Cu/Al2O3-MgO and 30NiSCu/Al2O3-ZnO have much higher H2 selectivity than 30NiSCu/Al2O3-SiO2,as well as good coke resistance.H2 selectivity for 30Ni5Cu/Al2O3-MgO catalyst was 73.3% at 450℃ and increased to 94.0% at 600 ℃,whereas for 30NiSCu/Al2O3-ZnO catalyst,the H2 selectivity was 63.6% at 450 ℃ and 95.2% at 600 ℃.These Al2O3-MgO and Al2O3-ZnO supported Ni-Cu bimetallic catalysts may have important applications in the production of hydrogen by ethanol steam reforming reactions....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:24 ethanolsteamreformingnickel-copper-basedcatalystAl2O3-SiO2support

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      • MnOx/Al2O3/Ce0.45Zr0.45M0.10Oy (M = Mn,Y,La) catalysts used for ethanol catalytic combustion

        MnOx/Al2O3/Ce0.45Zr0.45M0.10Oy (M = Mn,Y,La) catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and characterized by BET,TPR and XRD analyses.The catalytic activities toward ethanol combustion were investigated in a microreactor.The results demonstrated that the catalytic activity of MnOx/Al2O3/Ce0.50Zr0.50O2 monolithic catalyst could be improved by doping Mn,Y and La into Ce0.50Zr0.50O2.When doping Y into Ce0.50Zr0.50O2,the catalyst MnOx/Al2O3/Ce0.45Zr0.45Y0.10O1.95 showed the highest activity.The 100% conversion temperature of ethanol was 230 ℃.Furthermore,once the conversion of ethanol started,the complete conversion was quickly achieved.The doping of Mn,Y and La led to better activity for ethanol combustion and lower temperature reduction peaks in TPR profiles.The doping of Mn resulted in enhanced oxygen storage capacity (OSC),larger area of the reduction peaks,and excellent reactivity,and the doping of Y resulted in the lowest reduction temperature and the best activity....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:20 MnOxethanolceda-zixconiasolidsolutionsdoping

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      • Induction of experimental acute ulcerative colitis in rats by administration of dextran sulfate sodi

        Several models of experimental ulcerative colitis have been reported previously. However, none of these models showed the optimum characteristics. Although dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis results in inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis, an obvious obstacle is that dextran sulfate sodium is very expensive. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive model of colitis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 3 d followed by an intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol. The administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium followed by 30% ethanol induced significant weight loss, diarrhea and hematochezia in rats. Severe ulceration and inflammation of the distal part of rat colon were developed rapidly. Histological examination showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes,lymphocytes and existence of cryptic abscesses and dysplasia. The model induced by dextran sulfate sodium at lower concentration followed by 30% ethanol is characterized by a clinical course, localization of the lesions and histopathological features similar to human ulcerative colitis and fulfills the criteria set out at the beginning of this study....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:17 modelcolitisDextransulfatesodiumethanol

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      • Effects of ethanol on the in situ synthesized Cu/SiC》2 catalyst: Texture, structure, and the catalyt

        The Cu/SiO2 catalysts were in situ synthesized by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in one phase solution using ethanol as co-solvent or TEOS/H2O two phases solution, followed by the precipitation of copper on SiO2 by ammonia evaporation. In the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate, the catalyst prepared by one phase hydrolysis exhibited higher activity and ethylene glycol (EG) selectivity at lower temperature than that of two phases due to its larger BET surface area and multimodal pore distribution. At 488-503 K, the catalyst prepared in one phase solution with water/ethanol (W/E) volume ratio of 3:1 exhibited 90-95% EG selectivity, while catalyst prepared by two phase hydrolysis reached 90% EG selectivity only at 498-503 K....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:18 ethanolTEOShydrogenationdimethyloxalateethyleneglycol

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      • La2O2CO3 supported Ni-Fe catalysts for hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol

        La2O2CO3 was prepared by calcination of La2 (CO3)3 in the air.Catalysts Ni-Fe/La2O2CO3 with different mole ratios of Ni to Fe,Ni/La2O2CO3 and Fe/La2O2CO3 were prepared by impregnation method.The catalytic properties were evaluated on steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) from 300 to 700 ℃ under atmospheric pressure and the samples were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR).The results showed that Ni-Fe bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher activities than single metallic catalysts,which was attributed to the co-existence of well dispersed Ni,Fe and LaFeyNi1 yO3.It was found that the catalyst Ni-Fe/La2O2CO3 containing 10 wt.% Ni and 3 wt.%-5 wt.% Fe showed the best performance,the conversion of ethanol was 100%,the selectivity of H2 was higher than 90%,and the selectivity of CO was lower than 1.5% at 400 ℃....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:40 hydrogenproductionsteamreformingofethanolNi-FeLa2O2CO3rareearths

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      • Simultaneous removal of ethanol,acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxides over V-Pd/γ-Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst

        V-Pd/γ-Al2O3-TiO2 catalysts with different vanadium contents were prepared by a combined sol-gel and impregnation method.X-ray diffraction(XRD),N2 adsorption-desorption(BET),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS)and catalytic removal of ethanol,acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxides at low temperature(...

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:24 simultaneousremovalethanolAcetaldehydenitrogenoxides

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      • Nitrification characteristics of nitrobacteria immobilized in waterborne polyurethane in wastewater

        A technology to achieve stable and high ammonia nitrogen removal rates for corn distillery wastewater (ethanol fuel production) treatment has been designed.The characteristics of nitrifying bacteria entrapped in a waterborne polyurethane (WPU) gel carrier were evaluated after acclimation.In the acclimation period,nitrification rates of WPU-immobilized nitrobacteria were monitored and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also carried out to investigate the change in ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.The results showed that the pellet nitrification rates increased from 21 to 228 mg-N/(L-pellet-hr) and the quantity of the ammonia oxidation bacteria increased substantially during the acclimation.A continuous ammonia removal experiment with the anaerobic pond effluent of a distillery wastewater system was conducted with immobilized nitrifying bacteria for 30 days using an 80 L airlift reactor with pellets at a fill ratio of 15% (V/V).Under the conditions of 75 mg/L influent ammonia,hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.7-5,6 hr,and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 4 mg/L,the effluent ammonia concentration was lower than 10 mg/L and the ammonia removal efficiency was 90%.While the highest ammonia removal rate,162 mg-N/(L-pellet-hr),was observed when the HRT was 1.3 hr....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:18 Immobilizednitrobacteriacorndistillerywastewaterethanolfuelproduction

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      • NANO-STRUCTURED SILVER COATING ON COPPER PREPARED IN AN ETHANOL-BASED SOLUTION

        Recently, silver as an electrochemical deposit on copper substrate has been attracting much attention in the microelectronics field. To deposit nano-scale silver particles on copper, immersion plating using cyanide-based baths is commonly used. In this study, non-toxic ethanol was used as the plating solution. Sputtered copper samples were terized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS),and an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that the deposited particles are metallic silver. After 3 s immersion,fine particles whose diameters were around 6 nm had covered about 40% of the surface of the copper substrate. After10 s immersion, the copper surface was completely covered by silver particles, the diameters of which have increased to about 10-15 nm. After the whole surface was covered, a dense and smooth silver coating was obtained....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:25 AgCunano-particleethanol

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      • One-step Synthesis of n-Butanol from Ethanol Condensation over Alumina-supported Metal Catalysts

        One-step synthesis of n-butanol from bimolecular condensation of ethanol was firstly achieved over nickel supported gamma alumina catalyst. A mechanism of dehydration path for the growth of carbon chain by eliminating a hydroxy group from one ethanol molecule with a α-H of other ethanol molecule rather than aldol condensation was verified....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:24 ethanolcondensationn-butanolnickelsupportedongammaaluminadehydration

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      • Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities of Binary Mixture of Diethyl Carbonate+Ethanol at Different Tem

        The purpose of this work was to report excess molar volumes and dynamic viscosities of the binary mixture of diethyl carbonate (DEC)+ethanol. Densities and viscosities of the binary mixture of DEC+ethanol at temperatures 293.15 K-343.15 K and atmospheric pressure were determined over the entire composition range. Densities of the binary mixture of DEC+ethanol were measured by using a vibrating U-shaped sample tube densimeter. Viscosities were determined by using Ubbelohde suspended-level viscometer. Densities are accurate to 1.0×10-5 g·cm-3, and viscosities are reproducible within ±0.003 mPa·s. From these data, excess molar volumes and deviations in viscosity were calculated. Positive excess molar volumes and negative deviations in viscosity for DEC+ethanol system are due to the strong specific interactions.All excess molar vo-lumes and deviations in viscosity fit to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation.The fitting parameters were presented,and the average deviations and standard deviations were also calculated.The errors of correlation are very small.It proves that it is valuable for estimating densities and viscosities of the binary mixture by the correlated equation....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:21 densityviscosityexcessmolarvolumediethylcarbonateethanol

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      • NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalysts prepared by citric acid method for steam reforming of ethanol

        NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2catalysts were prepared by citrate method and used for hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol (SRE). The effect of nickel content and space velocity on the catalytic performance was investigated. The prepared catalysts were character-ized with XRD and thermal analysis techniques. 20%NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst was very active and selective for hydrogen production via SRE, in which ethanol conversion of 100% could be obtained with feed component of 20% (H2O+EtOH) and 80% N2, water/ethanol of 3/1 in molar ratio at 350 ℃. Also, the catalyst showed good stability for anti-sintering and carbon-resistance. The XRD illuminated that both NiO and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 crystal sizes were very small in NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst, and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 solid solution was formed....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:20 nickelCeO2ZrO2steamreformingethanolhydrogenrareearths

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      • Highly Sensitive SnO2 Nanorods Ethanol Sensors with the Adsorption of Au Nanoparticles

        Flower-liked SnO2 nanorods were prepared by a hydrothermal method.The sensors were fabricated using SnO2 nanorods adsorption of Au nanoparticles through sputtering deposition.We found that the loading of a small amount of Au nanoparticles on the surface of SnO2 nanorods can effectively enhance and functionalize the gas sensing performance of SnO2 nanorods,which due to the Au adsorption make the surface-depletion effect more pronounced.Such enhanced surface depletion increases the sensitivity,lowers the operation temperature and decreases the response time....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:19 SnO2nanorodsethanolsensorsAuNanoparticles

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      • Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols over Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts induced by ethanol

        Ethanol induced method was applied to prepare Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts for conversion of syngas to higher alcohols. The catalytic performance of the catalysts induced by ethanol was superior to that of the catalyst prepared by the conventional precipitation method. Among various procedures for ethanol induced method,it was found that incorporation of ethanol in the precipitation process was the better. After incorporation of ethanol,the crystal size of CuO decreased and the reduction of copper species became easier. The better activity of Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts prepared by ethanol induced procedures was probably caused by the higher dispersion of Cu species....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:14 Fe-Cu-ZrcatalystCOhydrogenationhigheralcoholsinducedbyethanol

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      • Effects of isoflurane and ethanol on large conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels

        Objective: To study the effect of isoflurane and ethanol on large conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels(BK channels). Methods: The cRNA of mslol encoding BK channels was injected into Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes were incubated in ND96 (96 mmol/L NaCl, 2.0 mmol/L KCl, 1.8 mmol/L CaCl2, 1.0 mmol/L MgCl2, and 5.0 mmol/L HEPES,pH 7.4) at 4 ℃. Patch clamp recording (outside-out) were performed after 2 - 3 d. Isoflurane was administrated by the vaporizer driven by air, ethanol was applied by a closed, manual-controlled administration system. Different test potentials from0 to 10 mV were given to observe changes of currents. Results: O. 7 mmol/L and 1.2 mmol/L of isoflurane could inhibit BK currents obviously at different command potentials, but 50 mmol/L, 100 mmol/L, or 200 mmol/L of ethanol had no any effect on BK currents. Conclusion: Clinical concentration of isoflurane can distinctly inhibit isolating BK currents....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:24 isofluraneethanolpatchclamplargeconductanceCa2+-activatedK+channels

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      • Micro-arc oxidization fabrication and ethanol sensing performance of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films

        In-situ pure TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were synthesized on Ti plates via the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique.The as-fabricated anatase TiO2 thin film-based conductometric sensors were employed to measure the gas sensitivity to ethanol.The results showed that Fe ions could be easily introduced into the MAO-TiO2 thin films by adding precursor K4(FeCN)6·3H2O into the Na3PO4 electrolyte.The amount of doped Fe ions increased almost linearly with the concentration of K4(FeCN)6·3H2O increasing,eventually affecting the ethanol sensing performances of TiO2 thin films.It was found that the enhanced sensor signals obtained had an optimal concentration of Fe dopant (1.28at%),by which the maximal gas sensor signal to 1000 ppm ethanol was estimated to be 7.91at 275℃.The response time was generally reduced by doped Fe ions,which could be ascribed to thc increase of oxygen vacancies caused by Fe3+ substituting for Ti4+....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:22 Thinfilmstitaniumdioxidedopingironmicro-arcoxidationethanolsensors

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      • Measurement and Correlation of Equilibrium Data for Aqueous Two-phase System Ethanol+Water+K2HPO4

        The isothermal solubility data of aqueous two-phase system ethanol+water+K2HPO4 were determined with the turbidity titration method at 303.2 K. The binodal curves were described by using the Mistry equation very well. An experimental procedure for measuring the liquid-liquid equilibrium data of the aqueous two-phase system was proposed, in which the concentrations of the coexisting phases were determined with the corresponding densities of the solution. The tie lines were satisfactorily described by using the Othmer Tobias and Bancroft equations....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:17 aqueoustwo-phasesystemsolubilityturbiditytitrationLLEethanolK2HPO4

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      • Preparation and characterization of Pt-WO3/C catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

        Three co-impregnation/chemical reduction methods in acidic solutions of pH < 1,="" including="" ethylene="" glycol="" (eg),="" nabh4,="" and="" hcooh,="" were="" compared="" for="" pt-wo3/c="" catalysts.="" pt-wo3/c="" catalysts="" containing="" 10="" wt.%="" and="" 20="" wt.%="" platinum="" per="" carbon="" were="" prepared="" by="" the="" three="" methods;="" their="" morphology="" and="" electrocatalytic="" activities="" were="" characterized.="" the="" 20="" wt.%="" pt-wo3/c="" catalyst="" prepared="" by="" the="" co-impregnation/eg="" method="" presented="" the="" optimal="" dispersion="" with="" an="" average="" particle="" size="" of="" 4.6="" nm="" and="" subsequently="" the="" best="" electrocatalytic="" activity,="" and="" so,="" it="" was="" further="" characterized.="" its="" anodic="" peak="" current="" density="" for="" ethanol="" oxidation="" from="" linear="" sweep="" voltammetry="" (lsv)="" is="" 7.9="" ma·cm-2="" ,="" which="" is="" 1.4="" and="" 5.2="" times="" as="" high="" as="" those="" of="" the="" catalysts="" prepared="" by="" co-impregnation/nabh4="" and="" co-impregnation/hcooh="" reduction="" methods,="" 2.1="" times="" as="" high="" as="" that="" of="" the="" 10="" wt.%="" pt-wo3/c="" catalyst="" prepared="" by="" co-impregnation/eg="" method,="" respectively.="">...

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:19 directethanolfuelcellscatalystspreparationmethodcharacterization

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      • A combination therapy of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation under general anesthesia for

        AIM: To summarize the effects of laparoscopic ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation (L-EI-RFA), thora-coscopic (T-EI-RFA) and open-surgery assisted EI-RFA (O-EI-RFA) under general anesthesia for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Time-lag performance of RFA after ethanol injection (Time-lag PEI-RFA) was performed in all cases. The volume of coagulated necrosis and the applied energy for total and per unit volume coagulated necrosis were examined in the groups treated under general (group G) or local anesthesia (group L).RESULTS: The results showed that the total applied energy and the applied energy per unit volume of whole and marginal, coagulated necrosis were significantly larger in group G than those in the group L, resulting in a larger volume of coagulated necrosis in the group G. The rate of local tumor recurrence within one year was extremely low in group G.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EI-RFA, under general anesthesia, may be effective for the treatment of HCC because a larger quantity of ethanol and energy could be applied during treatment under pain-free condition for the patients....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:23 combinationtherapyethanolinjectionRadio-frequencyablationgeneral

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      • Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

        AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated;whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels were measured in all the groups.RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage.This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels.CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:17 FoeniculumvulgareethanolratUlcerantioxidant

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      • Comparison between combination therapy of percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation

        AIM: In the present study, the characteristics of PEI-RFA treatment were further elucidated by analyzing the relationship between the volume of coagulated necrosis and the energy requirement for ablation or the amount of ethanol injected into HCC.METHODS: The volume of coagulated necrosis, total energy requirement and energy requirement for coagulation of per unit volume were examined in the groups of PEI-RFA and RFA alone using the Cool-tip RF system.RESULTS: The results showed that the volume of coagulated necrosis induced was significantly larger in PEI-RFA group than in routine RFA group, when the total energy administered was comparable in both groups.In PEI-RFA, enlargement of coagulated necrosis was admitted in 3 dimensions and the amount of energy requirement per unit volume of coagulated necrosis was negatively correlated with the amount of ethanol injected into HCC.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, compared to RFA alone, PEI-RFA enables to induce comparable coagulated necrosis with smaller energy requirement, and that PEI-RFA is likely to be less invasive than RFA alone irrespective of inducing enhanced coagulated necrosis.Thus, simple prior injection of ethanol may make RFA treatment more effective and less invasive for the treatment of patients with HCC....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:23 combinationtherapyPercutaneousethanolinjectionRadiofrequencyablation

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      • Synthesis of carbon nanotube arrays using ethanol in porous anodic aluminum oxide template

        Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays confined by porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template were synthesized using ethanol as reactant carbon source at low pressure. Images by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low magnification transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that these CNTs have highly uniform outer diameter and length, absolutely controlled by the diameter and depth of nano-channel arrays of the AAO. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging indicates that the graphitization of the CNT walls is better than the results reported on this kind of template-based CNT arrays, although it is not so good as that of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by catalysis. CNTs synthesized using acetylene as reactant gas show much less graphitization than those prepared using ethanol by comparing the results of HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy. The etching effects of decomposed OH radicals on the amorphous carbon and the roughness of AAO nano-channel arrays on the CNTs growth were employed to explain the graphitization and growth of the CNTs....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:19 ethanolPorousanodicaluminumoxideTemplatechemicalvapordepositioncarbon

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      • Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond Films on Silicon From Ethanol and Hydrogen

        Diamond films with very smooth surface and good optical quality have been deposited onto silicon substrate using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from a gas mixture of ethanol and hydrogen at a low substrate temperature of 450 ℃. The effects of the substrate temperature on the diamond nucleation and the morphology of the diamond film have been investigated and observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure and the phase of the film have been characterized using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The diamond nucleation density significantly decreases with the increasing of the substrate temperature. There are only sparse nuclei when the substrate temperature is higher than 800 ℃ although the ethanol concentration in hydrogen is very high. That the characteristic diamond peak in the Raman spectrum of a diamond film prepared at a low substrate temperature of 450 ℃ extends into broadband indicates that the film is of nanophase. No graphite peak appeared in the XRD pattern confirms that the film is mainly composed of SP3 carbon. The diamond peak in the XRD pattern also broadens due to the nanocrystalline of the film....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:29 diamondfilmMicrowaveplasmachemicalvapordepositionethanol

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      • Fermentation of xylose to produce ethanol by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain containing

        Fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose to produce ethanol using lignocellulosic biomass would make bioethanol production economically more competitive. Saccharomyce cerevisise, an efficient ethanol producer, cannot utilize xylose because it lacks the ability to convert xylose to its isomer xylulose. In this study, XYLA gene encoding xylose isomerase (XI) from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4T and XKS1 gene encoding xylulokinase (XK) from Pichia stipitis were cloned and functionally coexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae EF-326 to construct a recombinant xylose-utilizing strain. The resulting strain S. cerevisiae EF 1014 not only grew on xylose as sole carbon source, but also produced ethanol under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations performed with different xylose concentrations at different temperatures demonstrated that the highest ethanol productivity was 0.11 g/g xylose when xylose concentration was provided at 50 g/L. Under this condition, 28.4% of xylose was consumed and 1.54 g/L xylitol was formed. An increasing fermentation temperature from 30℃ to 37℃ did not improve ethanol yield....

        2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:18 xyloseisomerasexylulokinaseco-expressionethanolSaccharomyces

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